Ophthalmology Exams

This page will provide access to quick summaries and knowledge that ophthalmologists need to know for their exams.

Ophthalmology Conditions (with 7 main points to remember)

LENS

  • Cataract
  • Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS)
  • Cystoid macular oedema (CMO)
  • Refractive surprise
  • Lens dislocation / subluxation

CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

  • Microbial keratitis
  • Herpes simplex keratitis
  • Herpes zoster ophthalmicus
  • Recurrent corneal erosion syndrome
  • Corneal dystrophies
  • Keratoconus
  • Peripheral ulcerative keratitis
  • Dry eyes
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Conjunctival lesions
  • Episcleritis
  • Scleritis

GLAUCOMA

  • Ocular hypertension
  • Primary open-angle glaucoma
  • Normal tension glaucoma
  • Narrow angle glaucoma
  • Pigment dispersion syndrome
  • Pseudoexfoliation syndrome
  • Neovascular glaucoma
  • Secondary glaucomas

NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY

  • Optic neuritis
  • Non-ischaemic anterior optic neuropathy
  • Arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy / Giant cell arteritis
  • Papilloedema / Pseudopapilloedema
  • Optic atrophy
  • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
  • Optic disc anomalies
  • Chiasmal and retrochiasmal disorders
  • Migraine
  • Supranuclear eye movement disorders
  • CN 3 palsy
  • CN 4 palsy
  • CN 6 palsy
  • CN 7 anomalies
  • Aniscoria
  • Nystagmus
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Blepharospasm
  • Functional visual loss

PAEDIATRICS AND STRABISMUS

  • Ophthalmia neonatarum
  • Congenital cataract
  • Child abuse
  • Amblyopia
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Coat’s disease
  • Esotropia
  • Exotropia
  • Incomitant strabismus
  • Restriction syndromes
  • Alphabet patterns

ORBIT AND OCULOPLASTICS

  • Thyroid eye disease
  • Orbital cellulitis
  • Orbital inflammations
  • Orbital tumours
  • Orbital vascular lesions
  • Orbital cystic lesions
  • Lid lumps – benign
  • Lid lumps – malignant
  • Ectropion
  • Entropion
  • Ptosis
  • Nasolacrimal duct obstruction
  • Dacryocystitis
  • Dacryoadenitis

REFRACTIVE SURGERY

  • Refraction made easy
  • Types of spectacles
  • Types of contact lenses
  • Types of laser refractive surgery
  • Intracorneal ring segments
  • Incisional refractive surgery
  • Toric IOL
  • Multifocal IOL

RETINA (MEDICAL AND SURGICAL)

  • Age related macular degeneration
  • Familial exudative vitreo-retinopathy (FEVR)
  • Retinal detachment
  • Retinal vein occlusion
  • Posterior vitreous detachment
  • Retinoschisis
  • Vitreoretinal degenerations
  • Choroidal detachments
  • Uveal effeusion syndrome
  • Epiretinal membrane
  • Submacular haemorrhage
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Central serous retinopathy
  • Endophthalmitis
  • Retinal artery occlusion
  • Ocular ischaemic syndrome
  • Hypertensive retinopathy
  • Retinal telangiectasias
  • Radiation retinopathy
  • Retinitis pigmentosa
  • Macular dystrophies
  • Toxic retinopathies
  • Retinal conditions related to other systemic diseases
  • Chorioretinal dystrophies
  • Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
  • Macular holes

UVEITIS

  • Acute anterior uveitis
  • Seronegative spondyloarthropathies
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
  • Intermediate uveitis
  • Retinal vasculitis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Behcet’s disease
  • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada’s syndrome
  • Sympathetic ophthalmia
  • Viral uveitis
  • Infectious uveitis
  • White dot syndromes

Ophthalmology Guidelines

  • Age related macular degeneration (AMD) Guidelines 2013 (RCOphth)
  • Cataract Surgery Guidelines 2010 (RCOphth)
  • Diabetic Retinopathy Guidelines 2012 (RCOphth)
  • Local Anaesthesiae in Ophthalmic Surgery 2012 (RCOphth)
  • Occupational Visual Standards 2010 (DVLA)
  • Retinal Vein Occlusion Guidelines 2010 (RCOphth)
  • UK Retinal of Prematurity (ROP) Guideline 2008 (RCOphth)

Ophthalmology Important Studies 

Syndromes that is useful to know

Useful links to prepare for the exams

Memory techniques

  • Mnemonics
  • Body parts 

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