Definition: Thickening of macula from breakdown of blood retinal barrier leading to accumulation of intraretinal fluid at the junction of inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer.
- Metabolic – DR, radiation
- Ischaemic – RVO, DR, HTN, vasculitis, collagen dis
- Mechanical – VMT, ERM
- Inflammation – uveitis, post-op
- Hydrostatic – hypotony, venous occlusion
- Miscellaneous – macroaneurysm, telangiectasia, CNV, choroidal haemangioma, drugs (epinephrine, betaxolol, latanoprost), RP
- CMO like condition – XLR, nicotinic acid, OD pit, Goldmann Favre
Symptoms: loss of vision with metamorphopsia.
Investigations: OCT macula; FFA
- Observe – most cases resolve especially uncomplicated cataract surgery within 6 mths.
- Diamox – for RP
- Topical NSAIDs – for inflammatory causes. (also to consider as prophylaxis pre op for high risk cases)
- Topical, periocular, intravitreal or oral/IV corticosteroids – for inflammatory causes.
- IVT anti-VEGF – for ischaemic causes.
- Immunosuppressive drugs – for inflammatory causes.
- Grid Laser – for ischaemic causes.
- PPV – for mechanical causes.